1765年8月14日早晨,当时被称为“自由之子”的抗议者袭击了当地英国邮票经销商安德鲁·奥利弗的住所。暴乱者开始将奥利弗的肖像悬挂在着名的榆树上,称为“自由树”。当天晚些时候,暴民将奥利弗的肖像拖过街道,摧毁了他建造用作邮票的新建筑。当奥利弗拒绝辞职时,抗议者在他的精美而昂贵的家门前斩首他的肖像,然后打开所有窗户,摧毁马车房并从酒窖偷酒。在明确收到消息后,奥利弗第二天辞职了。然而,奥利弗的辞职并不是骚乱的结束。 8月26日,另一群抗议者掠夺并几乎摧毁了波士顿庄严的副州长托马斯哈钦森 – 奥利弗的姐夫。其他殖民地的类似抗议迫使更多的英国官员辞职。在殖民地海港,装满英国邮票和纸张的入境船只被迫返回伦敦。到1765年3月,忠诚九号被称为自由之子,已知在纽约,康涅狄格州,新泽西州,马里兰州,弗吉尼亚州,罗德岛州,新罕布什尔州和马萨诸塞州组建的团体。 11月,一个委员会在纽约成立,以协调迅速传播的自由之子组织之间的秘密通信。 1765年10月7日至25日期间,来自九个殖民地的当选代表在纽约召开了印花税法大会,目的是设计针对“印花税法”的统一抗议。代表们起草了“权利和冤情宣言”,肯定了他们的信念,即只有当地民选的殖民政府,而不是英国官方政府,才有法定权力对殖民者征税。在接下来的几个月里,殖民商人对英国进口商品的抵制鼓励英国商人要求议会废除“印花税法”。在抵制期间,殖民地妇女组成了“自由女儿”的地方分会,用旋转布代替被封锁的英国进口商品。到1765年11月,暴力抗议,抵制以及英国邮票分销商和殖民官员辞职的结合使得英国官方越来越难以实施“印花税法”。最后,在1766年3月,在本杰明富兰克林在英国下议院发出激情上诉之后,议会投票决定废除“印花税法”近一年至其颁布后的第二天。

新西兰梅西大学法律论文代写:邮票经销商

On the morning of August 14, 1765, protesters known as the “son of freedom” attacked the residence of the local British stamp dealer Andrew Oliver. The rioters began to hang Oliver’s portrait on the famous banyan tree, called the “free tree.” Later that day, the mob dragged Oliver’s portrait across the street, destroying the new building he built as a stamp. When Oliver refused to resign, the protester hijacked his portrait in front of his beautiful and expensive home, then opened all the windows, destroyed the carriage house and stole the wine from the cellar. After clear receipt of the news, Oliver resigned the next day. However, Oliver’s resignation is not the end of the riots. On August 26, another group of protesters looted and almost destroyed the brother-in-law of Thomas Hutchinson-Oliver, the sole and deputy governor of Boston. Similar protests in other colonies forced more British officials to resign. In the colonial harbour, inbound vessels filled with British stamps and paper were forced to return to London. By March 1765, Loyalty No. 9 was known as the Son of Freedom, a group known to be formed in New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In November, a committee was established in New York to coordinate the secret communication between the rapidly spreading Freedom Children. From October 7 to 25, 1765, elected representatives from nine colonies held a stamp tax law conference in New York to design a unified protest against the “Print Tax Law”. The delegates drafted the “Declaration of Rights and Lyrics” and affirmed their conviction that only the colonial government elected by the local government, rather than the official British government, had the statutory power to tax the colonists. In the next few months, the resistance of colonial traders to British imports encouraged British merchants to ask the Parliament to abolish the “stamp tax law”. During the boycott, colonial women formed a local chapter of the “Free Daughter”, replacing the blocked British imports with rotating cloth. By November 1765, violent protests, boycotts, and the resignation of British stamp distributors and colonial officials made it increasingly difficult for British officials to implement the Stamp Duty Act. Finally, in March 1766, after Benjamin Franklin issued a passionate appeal in the British House of Commons, the parliament voted to abolish the “stamp tax law” for nearly a year to the second day after its promulgation.

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