为了处理过去所有这些模糊遗址的自然和文化活动，考古学家依赖于一组不断增长的研究工具：主要的是地质考古学。地质考古学是一门与自然地理学和考古学相结合的科学：它关注的是理解场地的物理环境，包括它在景观中的位置，基岩和第四纪沉积物的类型，以及土壤内外的土壤和沉积物的类型。现场。地质考古技术通常借助于卫星和航空摄影，地图（地形，地质，土壤调查，历史）以及地磁物理技术（如磁力测定）来进行。在该领域，地质考古学家对横断面和剖面进行系统描述，重建地质事件，其在考古遗迹背景内外的垂直和横向变化。有时，地理考古现场单位被放置在场外，在可以收集岩石地层学和土壤学证据的地方。地质考古学家研究自然和文化单元的场地环境，描述和地层对比，以及现场采样，以便进行后期的微形态分析和测年。一些研究从他们的调查中收集完整土壤块，垂直和水平样本，然后回到实验室，在那里可以进行比现场更多的受控处理。粒度分析和最近的土壤微形态学技术，包括未受干扰的沉积物的薄截面分析，使用岩石显微镜，扫描电子显微镜，X射线分析如微探针和X射线衍射以及傅里叶变换红外（FTIR）光谱法进行。 。散装化学品（有机物，磷酸盐，微量元素）和物理（密度，磁化率）分析用于合并或确定单个过程。 20世纪40年代出土的苏格兰中石器遗址的再研究是利用现代技术进行的。 20世纪40年代的考古学家评论说，干旱对这些地点的影响非常严重，以至于没有任何有关炉膛或建筑物甚至建筑物后洞的证据。这项新研究采用了微形态学技术，他们能够在这些地点辨别出所有这些类型特征的证据（Salvatori及其同事）。深水沉船（定义为深度超过60米的沉船）现场形成过程表明，沉船的沉积是航向，速度，时间和水深的函数，可以使用一组基本方程进行预测和测量（教会）。公元前2世纪的形成过程研究Pauli Stincus的撒丁岛遗址揭示了农业方法的证据，包括使用sodbuster和刀耕火种（Nicosia及其同事）。研究了希腊北部新石器时代湖泊住宅的微观环境，揭示了先前未知的对湖水上升和下降的反应，居民在高跷平台上或根据需要直接在地面上建造（Karkanas及其同事）。
To deal with the natural and cultural activities of all these vague sites in the past, archaeologists rely on a growing set of research tools: primarily geological archaeology. Geological archaeology is a science that combines physical geography and archaeology: it focuses on understanding the physical environment of the site, including its location in the landscape, the types of bedrock and Quaternary sediments, and the soil inside and outside. The type of soil and sediment. on site. Geological archaeological techniques are usually carried out by means of satellite and aerial photography, maps (topography, geology, soil surveys, history) and geomagnetic physics techniques (eg magnetometry). In this area, geological archaeologists systematically describe cross-sections and sections to reconstruct geological events that vary vertically and laterally within and outside the archaeological remains. At times, geo-archaeological site units are placed off-site, where rock stratigraphy and soil evidence can be collected. Geological archaeologists study the site environment of natural and cultural units, descriptions and stratigraphic comparisons, as well as on-site sampling for later micromorphological analysis and dating. Some studies collected intact soil blocks, vertical and horizontal samples from their surveys, and then returned to the laboratory where more controlled treatments were performed than in the field. Particle size analysis and recent soil micromorphology techniques, including thin section analysis of undisturbed sediments, using rock microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis such as microprobe and X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ) Spectroscopic methods are carried out. . Bulk chemicals (organic, phosphate, trace elements) and physical (density, magnetic susceptibility) analysis are used to combine or determine a single process. The re-study of the Scottish Middle Stone ruins unearthed in the 1940s was carried out using modern technology. Archaeologists in the 1940s commented that the effects of drought on these sites were so severe that there was no evidence of a furnace or a building or even a building’s back hole. The new study uses micromorphology techniques that enable them to identify evidence of all these types of characteristics at these locations (Salvatori and colleagues). The formation of a deepwater shipwreck (defined as a shipwreck with a depth of more than 60 m) indicates that the sedimentation of the shipwreck is a function of heading, speed, time and water depth and can be predicted and measured using a basic set of equations (church). The formation process of the 2nd century BC The ruins of Sardinia in Pauli Stincus reveal evidence of agricultural methods, including the use of sodbuster and slash-and-burn (Nicosia and colleagues). The micro-environment of the Neolithic lake houses in northern Greece was studied, revealing previously unknown responses to the rise and fall of the lake, where residents built directly on the sorghum platform or as needed (Karkanas and colleagues).