1798年,一位32岁的英国经济学家匿名发表了一篇冗长的小册子,批评乌托邦人的观点,他们相信生命能够并且肯定会改善地球上的人类。匆忙撰写的文章,“影响社会未来发展的人口原理论文”,以及对Godwin先生,M. Condorcet先生和其他作家的推测的评论,由Thomas Robert Malthus出版。托马斯·马尔萨斯于1766年2月14日或17日出生于英国萨里,在家接受教育。他的父亲是一位乌托邦人,也是哲学家大卫休谟的朋友。 1784年,他进入耶稣学院,并于1788年毕业; 1791年Thomas Malthus获得硕士学位。托马斯·马尔萨斯认为,由于人类对人类繁殖的自然冲动几何增加(1,2,4,16,32,64,128,256等)。但是,食物供应最多只能算术增加(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8等)。因此,由于食物是人类生活的重要组成部分,任何地区或地球上的人口增长,如果不加以控制,都会导致饥饿。然而,马尔萨斯还认为,对人口进行预防性检查和积极检查会减缓其增长并使人口长期呈指数上升,但贫困仍然是不可避免的,并将继续存在。托马斯·马尔萨斯(Thomas Malthus)的人口增长倍增的例子是基于这个全新的美利坚合众国的前25年。马尔萨斯认为,像美国这样肥沃土壤的年轻国家将拥有最高的出生率。他一度估计一英亩农业产量的算术增长,承认他过高估计,但他给农业发展带来了怀疑的好处。托马斯·马尔萨斯(Thomas Malthus)认为,预防性检查是指那些影响出生率的检查,包括在晚年结婚(道德约束),避免生育,节育和同性恋。马尔萨斯是一个宗教家伙(他在英格兰教会担任牧师),认为生育控制和同性恋是恶习和不合适(但仍然是实践)。根据Thomas Malthus的说法,积极的检查是提高死亡率。这些包括疾病,战争,灾难,最后当其他检查不减少人口,饥荒。马尔萨斯认为,对饥荒的恐惧或饥荒的发展也是降低出生率的主要推动力。他表示,当潜在父母知道自己的孩子可能会挨饿时,他们不太可能生孩子。托马斯马尔萨斯还主张福利改革。最近的贫困法律提供了一种福利制度,根据家庭中的子女数量提供了更多的资金。马尔萨斯认为,这只会鼓励穷人生育更多的孩子,因为他们不会担心越来越多的后代会让吃得更困难。贫困工人数量的增加将降低劳动力成本,最终使穷人更加贫困。他还表示,如果政府或机构向每个穷人提供一定数额的资金,价格就会上涨,而货币的价值也会发生变化。同样,由于人口增长快于生产,供应基本上会停滞或下降,因此需求会增加,价格会增加。尽管如此,他认为资本主义是唯一可以发挥作用的经济体系。托马斯·马尔萨斯(Thomas Malthus)发明的观点出现在工业革命之前,并将植物,动物和谷物作为饮食的关键组成部分。因此,对于马尔萨斯来说,可用的生产性农田是人口增长的一个限制因素。随着工业革命和农业生产的增加,土地已成为一个不像18世纪那样重要的因素。

新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学Essay代写: 人口学

In 1798, a 32-year-old British economist anonymously published a lengthy pamphlet criticizing the views of Utopians who believed that life could and certainly improve humans on Earth. The article that has been rushed to write, “Population of Population Principles Affecting the Future of Society”, and speculative comments on Mr. Godwin, Mr. M. Condorcet and other authors, published by Thomas Robert Malthus. Thomas Malthus was born in Surrey, England on February 14 or 17, 1766, and was educated at home. His father was a utopian and a friend of the philosopher David Hume. In 1784 he entered the Jesus College and graduated in 1788; in 1791 Thomas Malthus received his master’s degree. Thomas Malthus believes that the natural impulse geometry of human reproduction for humans increases (1, 2, 4, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, etc.). However, the food supply can only be increased at most (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, etc.). Therefore, because food is an important part of human life, population growth in any region or on the planet can lead to hunger if left unchecked. However, Malthus also believes that preventive inspections and positive inspections of the population will slow their growth and increase the population’s index for a long time, but poverty is still inevitable and will continue to exist. An example of the multiplication of Thomas Malthus’ population is based on the first 25 years of this new United States of America. Malthus believes that a young country like the fertile soil of the United States will have the highest birth rate. He once estimated the arithmetic growth of an acre of agricultural production, acknowledging that he was overestimated, but he brought doubts to agricultural development. Thomas Malthus believes that preventive testing refers to those tests that affect birth rates, including marriage in late life (moral constraints), avoidance of birth, birth control and homosexuality. Malthus is a religious guy (he is a pastor in the Church of England) and believes that birth control and homosexuality are bad habits and inappropriate (but still practice). According to Thomas Malthus, a positive check is to increase mortality. These include illness, war, disaster, and finally when other checks do not reduce population, famine. Malthus believes that the fear of famine or the development of famine is also the main driving force behind the birth rate. He said that when potential parents know that their children may go hungry, they are less likely to have children. Thomas Malthus also advocated welfare reform. Recent poverty laws provide a welfare system that provides more money based on the number of children in the family. Malthus believes that this will only encourage the poor to have more children because they will not worry that more and more offspring will make eating more difficult. An increase in the number of poor workers will reduce labor costs and ultimately make the poor even poorer. He also said that if the government or agency provides a certain amount of money to each poor, the price will rise and the value of the currency will change. Similarly, as population growth is faster than production, supply will basically stagnate or decline, so demand will increase and prices will increase. Still, he believes that capitalism is the only economic system that can make a difference. The idea invented by Thomas Malthus preceded the Industrial Revolution and made plants, animals and grains a key component of the diet. Therefore, for Malthus, the available productive farmland is a limiting factor for population growth. With the industrial revolution and increased agricultural production, land has become an important factor unlike the 18th century.

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