“同性恋科学”是尼采最私人的作品之一,不仅收集了他的哲学反思,还收集了许多诗歌,格言和歌曲。 Nietzsche作为一种思想实验呈现的永恒复发的概念出现在格言主义341中,“最大的重量”:“如果有一天或者晚上有恶魔偷偷进入你最孤独的孤独之后对你说什么:’你现在生活并生活过它的生活,你将不得不再次生活,无数次生活;它将不会有任何新的东西,但每一个痛苦和每一个欢乐,每一个念头和叹息,以及一切都难以言喻的小或者你生命中的伟大将要回到你身边,一切都在同一个继承和顺序 – 甚至这只蜘蛛和树木之间的月光,甚至是我和我自己的这一刻。永恒的沙漏一次又一次颠倒,你,它,尘埃!难道你不要把自己摔倒,咬牙切齿,诅咒这样说话的恶魔吗?或者你曾经经历过一个伟大的时刻,当你回答他时:“你是一个上帝,我从来没有听过任何更神圣的东西。”如果这种想法获得了你的控制权,它就会改变你的状态,或者可能会摧毁你。每一件事中的问题,“你是否再次渴望这一点,无数次?”会对你的行为作为最大的重量而撒谎。或者你对自己和生活的处理程度如何,以至于没有比这最终永恒的确认和封印更热切的渴望?“尼采报告说,1881年8月,当他在瑞士的一个湖边散步时突然发现了这个想法。在“同性恋科学”结束时介绍了这个想法之后,他把它作为他下一部作品的基本概念之一,“因此说出了扎拉图斯特拉”。 Zarathustra,这位先知般的人物,在本书中宣称尼采的教义,起初不愿意表达这个想法,甚至是他自己。然而,最终,他宣称永恒的复发是一个快乐的事实,任何生活充实的人都应该接受这个事实。奇怪的是,在“如此说话的扎拉图斯特拉”之后,尼采出版的任何作品都没有显示出永恒的复发。然而,有一个专门讨论“权力意志”这一概念的部分,这是尼采于1901年由姐姐伊丽莎白发表的一系列笔记。在这段经文中,尼采似乎认真地接受了这个学说确实存在的可能性。然而,重要的是,哲学家从未在其他任何出版的着作中坚持这个想法的真实真理。相反,他将永恒的复发作为一种思想实验,一种对生活态度的考验。尼采的哲学关注的是关于自由,行动和意志的问题。在提出永恒复发的想法时,他要求我们不要将这个想法视为真理,而是要问自己,如果这个想法是真的,我们会怎么做。他认为我们的第一反应绝对是绝望:人类的状况是悲惨的;生活中充满了痛苦;人们必须无数次重复它的想法似乎很糟糕。但后来他想象出一种不同的反应。假设我们可以欢迎这个消息,把它作为我们想要的东西来拥抱?尼采说,这将是一种生命肯定态度的终极表达:一次又一次地想要这种生活,带着一切痛苦,无聊和挫折。这种思想与“同性恋科学”第四册的主导主题联系在一起,这是一个“耶和说”,一个生命肯定者,以及拥抱爱情(爱一个人的命运)的重要性。这也是“如此说话Zarathustra”中提出的想法。扎拉图斯特拉能够拥抱永恒的复发,是他对生活的热爱和他对“忠实于地球”的渴望的终极表现。也许这就是扎拉图斯特所期待的“Übermnesch”或“Overman”的回应。人类。这里的对比是基督教这样的宗教,它认为这个世界是低劣的,这种生活只是为了在天堂里过上更美好的生活。因此,永恒的复发提供了一种与基督教提出的不朽相反的观念。

新西兰怀卡托大学文学Assignment代写:尼采的永恒复发观

“The Gay Science” is one of Nietzsche’s most personal works, collecting not only his philosophical reflections but also a number of poems, aphorisms, and songs. The idea of eternal recurrence—which Nietzsche presents as a sort of thought experiment—appears in Aphorism 341, “The Greatest Weight”: “What, if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: ‘This life as you now live it and have lived it, you will have to live once more and innumerable times more; and there will be nothing new in it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh and everything unutterably small or great in your life will have to return to you, all in the same succession and sequence—even this spider and this moonlight between the trees, and even this moment and I myself. The eternal hourglass of existence is turned upside down again and again, and you with it, speck of dust!’ Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: ‘You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine.’ If this thought gained possession of you, it would change you as you are or perhaps crush you. The question in each and every thing, ‘Do you desire this once more and innumerable times more?’ would lie upon your actions as the greatest weight. Or how well disposed would you have to become to yourself and to life to crave nothing more fervently than this ultimate eternal confirmation and seal?” Nietzsche reported that this thought came to him suddenly one day in August 1881 while he was taking a walk along a lake in Switzerland. After introducing the idea at the end of “The Gay Science,” he made it one of the fundamental concepts of his next work, “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” Zarathustra, the prophet-like figure who proclaims Nietzsche’s teachings in this volume, is at first reluctant to articulate the idea, even to himself. Eventually, though, he proclaims that eternal recurrence is a joyful truth, one that should be embraced by anyone who lives life to the fullest. Oddly enough, eternal recurrence doesn’t figure too prominently in any of the works Nietzsche published after “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” However, there is a section dedicated to the idea in “The Will to Power,” a collection of notes published by Nietzsche’s sister Elizabeth in 1901. In the passage, Nietzsche seems to seriously entertain the possibility that the doctrine is literally true. It is significant, however, that the philosopher never insists on the idea’s literal truth in any of his other published writings. Rather, he presents eternal recurrence as a sort of thought experiment, a test of one’s attitude toward life. Nietzsche’s philosophy is concerned with questions about freedom, action, and will. In presenting the idea of eternal recurrence, he asks us not to take the idea as truth but to ask ourselves what we would do if the idea were true. He assumes that our first reaction would be utter despair: the human condition is tragic; life contains much suffering; the thought that one must relive it all an infinite number of times seems terrible. But then he imagines a different reaction. Suppose we could welcome the news, embrace it as something that we desire? That, says Nietzsche, would be the ultimate expression of a life-affirming attitude: to want this life, with all its pain and boredom and frustration, again and again. This thought connects with the dominant theme of Book IV of “The Gay Science,” which is the importance of being a “yea-sayer,” a life-affirmer, and of embracing amor fati (love of one’s fate). This is also how the idea is presented in “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” Zarathustra’s being able to embrace eternal recurrence is the ultimate expression of his love for life and his desire to remain “faithful to the earth.” Perhaps this would be the response of the “Übermnesch” or “Overman” who Zarathustra anticipates as a higher kind of human being. The contrast here is with religions like Christianity, which see this world as inferior, this life as a mere preparation for a better life in paradise. Eternal recurrence thus offers a notion of immortality counter to the one proposed by Christianity.

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