阿兹特克人的口述历史及其幸存的法典将Toltecs描述为生活在Tollan的智慧,文明,富裕的城市人,Tollan是一座充满玉石和金色建筑的城市。历史学家说,托尔特克人发明了中美洲的所有艺术和科学,包括中美洲的历法。他们由他们明智的国王Quetzalcoatl领导。他建造了四座用于禁食和祈祷的房屋,还有一座寺庙,上面有美丽的柱子,上面刻有蛇形浮雕。但他的虔诚激怒了Tollan的巫师,他们故意摧毁他的人民。巫师欺骗了Quetzalcoatl,让他感到羞耻,因此他向东逃去,到达了海边。对于阿兹特克人来说,托尔特克的领导者是理想的统治者,是在托兰的历史和祭司职责中学习的高贵战士,具有军事和商业领导的品质。 Toltec统治者领导了一个战士社会,其中包括风暴之神(Aztec Tlaloc或Maya Chaac),Quetzalcoatl位于原始神话的核心。阿兹特克人的领导人声称他们是托尔特克领导人的后裔,建立了半神圣的统治权。托尔特克神话中的阿兹特克人说,Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl [由阿兹特克人在15世纪报道,出生于公元843年的里德,并在52年后的1年Reed,895年去世]是一个聪明,老谦卑的国王,教他的人民写作和测量时间,工作金,玉和羽毛,种植棉花,染色,编织成美妙的罩子,并提高玉米和可可。在那里,他穿着神圣的羽毛和绿松石的面具,将自己焚烧起来,升天而起,成为晨星。阿兹特克人的说法并不完全同意:至少有人说Quetzalcoatl在他离开时摧毁了Tollan,埋葬了所有奇妙的东西并烧毁了其他一切。他把可可树变成了豆科灌木,把鸟儿送到了水边的另一个传奇土地阿纳瓦克。伯纳迪诺·萨哈贡(Bernardino Sahagun)讲述的这个故事当然有他自己的议程 – 他说,Quetzalcoatl制作了大量的蛇,并划过大海。 Sahagun是西班牙方济各会的修道士,他和其他编年史家今天被认为创造了将Quetzalcoatl与征服者科尔特斯联系在一起的神话 – 但这是另一个故事。在伊达尔戈州的图拉遗址在19世纪后期的考古意义上首次与托兰相提并论 – 阿兹特克人对托兰的哪一套遗址感到矛盾,尽管图拉当然是其中之一。法国远征摄影师DesiréeCharnay筹集资金,追随Quetzalcoatl从图拉向东到尤卡坦半岛的传奇之旅。当他到达玛雅首都ChichénItzá时,他注意到蛇柱和球场响起,让他想起了他在奇琴西北1300公里(800英里)的图拉看过的人。 Charnay读过16世纪的阿兹特克人的记载,并指出Toltec被阿兹特克人认为创造了文明,他解释了建筑和风格的相似之处,意味着Toltecs的首都是图拉,其奇琴伊察遥远并被征服殖民地;到20世纪40年代,大多数考古学家也这样做了。但从那时起,考古和历史证据表明这是有问题的。

新西兰怀卡托大学历史学Assignment代写:阿兹特克人的半神话传说

Aztec oral histories and their surviving codexes describe the Toltecs as wise, civilized, wealthy urban people who lived in Tollan, a city filled with buildings made of jade and gold. The Toltecs, said the historians, invented all the arts and sciences of Mesoamerica, including the Mesoamerican calendar; they were led by their wise king Quetzalcoatl. He built four houses for fasting and prayer and a temple with beautiful columns carved with serpent reliefs. But his piety excited anger among the sorcerers of Tollan, who were intent on destroying his people. The sorcerers tricked Quetzalcoatl into drunken behavior that shamed him so he fled east, reaching the edge of the sea. For the Aztecs, the Toltec leader was the ideal ruler, a noble warrior who was learned in the history and priestly duties of Tollan, and had the qualities of military and commercial leadership. The Toltec rulers led a warrior society that included a storm god (Aztec Tlaloc or Maya Chaac), with Quetzalcoatl at the heart of the origin myth. The Aztec leaders claimed they were descendants of the Toltec leaders, establishing a semi-divine right to rule. The Aztec accounts of the Toltec myth say that Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl [reported by the Aztecs in the 15th century to have been born in the year 1 Reed, 843 AD and died 52 years later in the year 1 Reed, 895], was a wise, old humble king who taught his people to write and measure time, to work gold, jade and feathers, to grow cotton, dye it and weave it into fabulous mantles, and to raise maize and cacao. There, dressed in divine feathers and a turquoise mask, he burned himself up and rose into the sky, becoming the morning star. Aztec accounts don’t all agree: at least one says that Quetzalcoatl destroyed Tollan as he left, burying all the marvelous things and burning everything else. He changed the cacao trees to mesquite and sent the birds to Anahuac, another legendary land at the edge of the water. The story as recounted by Bernardino Sahagun–who certainly had his own agenda–says that Quetzalcoatl fashioned a raft of serpents and sailed across the sea. Sahagun was a Spanish Franciscan friar, and he and other chroniclers are today believed to have created the myth associating Quetzalcoatl with the conquistador Cortes–but that’s another story. The site of Tula in Hidalgo state was first equated with Tollan in the archaeological sense in the late 19th century–the Aztecs were ambivalent about which set of ruins was Tollan, although Tula was certainly one. French expeditionary photographer Desirée Charnay raised money to follow the legendary journey of Quetzalcoatl from Tula eastward to the Yucatan peninsula. When he arrived at the Maya capital of Chichén Itzá, he noticed serpent columns and a ball court ring that reminded him of those he had seen at Tula, 1300 kilometers (800 miles) northwest of Chichen. Charnay had read the 16th century Aztec accounts and noted that the Toltec were thought by the Aztecs to have created civilization, and he interpreted the architectural and stylistic similarities to mean that the capital city of the Toltecs was Tula, with Chichen Itza its remote and conquered colony; and by the 1940s, a majority of archaeologists did too. But since that time, archaeological and historical evidence has shown that to be problematic.

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