法兰克福学派更为恰当地称为批判理论,是一种遍布全球许多大学的哲学和社会学运动。它最初位于德国法兰克福歌德大学附属研究所社会研究所(InstitutfürSozialforschung)。该研究所成立于1923年,得益于Felix Weil的捐赠,目的是在德国开展马克思主义研究。 1933年后,纳粹迫使其关闭,该研究所搬到了美国,在那里它在纽约市的哥伦比亚大学找到了热情好客。批判方法的学术影响是深远的。学院的一些关键问题和哲学关注点涉及对现代性和资本主义社会的批判,社会解放的定义,以及对社会病态的检测。批判理论对马克思主义哲学的一些中心经济和政治概念提供了具体的解释,如商品化,物化,神化和对大众文化的批判。一些的第一代批判理论家的最突出的数字分别为霍克海默(1895年至1973年),阿多诺(1903年至1969年),马尔库塞(1898年至1979年),本雅明(1892年至1940年),弗里德里希波洛克(1894 -1970),Leo Lowenthal(1900-1993)和Eric Fromm(1900-1980)。自20世纪70年代以来,第二代开始于JürgenHabermas,他除了其他优点外,还为所谓的大陆和分析传统之间的对话做出了贡献。通过哈贝马斯,法兰克福学派在其他欧洲学术背景和学科中转变为全球性的影响方法论方法。正是在这一阶段,哈贝马斯的哲学家和当代的理查德伯恩斯坦接受了批判理论的研究议程,并从纽约新社会研究学院开始,大力帮助其在美国大学的发展。

新西兰怀卡托大学Assignment代写:法兰克福学派与批判理论

The Frankfurt School, known more appropriately as Critical Theory, is a philosophical and sociological movement spread across many universities around the world. It was originally located at the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung), an attached institute at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany. The Institute was founded in 1923 thanks to a donation by Felix Weil with the aim of developing Marxist studies in Germany. After 1933, the Nazis forced its closure, and the Institute was moved to the United States where it found hospitality at Columbia University in New York City. The academic influence of the critical method is far reaching. Some of the key issues and philosophical preoccupations of the School involve the critique of modernity and capitalist society, the definition of social emancipation, as well as the detection of the pathologies of society. Critical Theory provides a specific interpretation of Marxist philosophy with regards to some of its central economic and political notions like commodification, reification, fetishization and critique of mass culture. Some of the most prominent figures of the first generation of Critical Theorists were Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979), Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), Friedrich Pollock (1894-1970), Leo Lowenthal (1900-1993), and Eric Fromm (1900-1980). Since the 1970s, a second generation began with Jürgen Habermas, who, among other merits, contributed to the opening of a dialogue between so-called continental and the analytic traditions. With Habermas, the Frankfurt School turned global, influencing methodological approaches in other European academic contexts and disciplines. It was during this phase that Richard Bernstein, a philosopher and contemporary of Habermas, embraced the research agenda of Critical Theory and significantly helped its development in American universities starting from the New School for Social Research in New York.

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