定义:热力学定律是生物学的重要统一原则。这些原则控制着所有生物体中的化学过程(代谢)。热力学第一定律,也称为能量守恒定律,指出能量既不能被创造也不能被破坏。它可能从一种形式变为另一种形式,但封闭系统中的能量保持不变。热力学第二定律指出,当能量转移时,转移过程结束时的可用能量将少于开始时的可用能量。由于熵是封闭系统中无序的衡量标准,所有可用的能量对生物体都没有用。随着能量的传递,熵增加。除了热力学定律之外,细胞理论,基因理论,进化和动态平衡构成了生命研究基础的基本原理。所有生物有机体都需要能量来生存。在一个封闭的系统中,例如宇宙,这种能量不会消耗,而是从一种形式转变为另一种形式。例如,细胞执行许多重要过程。这些过程需要能量。在光合作用中,能量由太阳提供。光能被植物叶子中的细胞吸收并转化为化学能。化学能以葡萄糖的形式储存,葡萄糖用于形成构建植物物质所必需的复合碳水化合物。存储在葡萄糖中的能量也可以通过细胞呼吸释放。该过程允许植物和动物有机体通过ATP的产生获得储存在碳水化合物,脂质和其他大分子中的能量。这种能量是进行细胞功能所必需的,例如DNA复制,有丝分裂,减数分裂,细胞运动,内吞作用,胞吐作用和细胞凋亡。

新西兰格里菲斯大学生物学论文代写:格里菲斯大学

Definition: The laws of thermodynamics are important unifying principles of biology. These principles govern the chemical processes (metabolism) in all biological organisms. The First Law of Thermodynamics, also known ​as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It may change from one form to another, but the energy in a closed system remains constant. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred, there will be less energy available at the end of the transfer process than at the beginning. Due to entropy, which is the measure of disorder in a closed system, all of the available energy will not be useful to the organism. Entropy increases as energy is transferred. In addition to the laws of thermodynamics, the cell theory, gene theory, evolution, and homeostasis form the basic principles that are the foundation for the study of life. All biological organisms require energy to survive. In a closed system, such as the universe, this energy is not consumed but transformed from one form to another. Cells, for example, perform a number of important processes. These processes require energy. In photosynthesis, the energy is supplied by the sun. Light energy is absorbed by cells in plant leaves and converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose, which is used to form complex carbohydrates necessary to build plant mass. The energy stored in glucose can also be released through cellular respiration. This process allows plant and animal organisms to access the energy stored in carbohydrates, lipids, and other macromolecules through the production of ATP. This energy is needed to perform cell functions such as DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis, cell movement, endocytosis, exocytosis, and apoptosis.

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