场地形成过程 – 或更简单的形成过程 – 指在人类占领之前,期间和之后创建和影响考古遗址的事件。为了最好地了解考古遗址,研究人员收集了那里发生的自然和文化事件的证据。一个考古遗址的一个很好的比喻是一个palimpsest,一个中世纪的手稿,一次又一次地,一次又一次地写着,擦除和书写。考古遗址是居住者离开后留下的人类行为,石器,房屋基础和垃圾堆的遗迹。但是,每个站点都是在特定的环境中创建的 – 湖岸,山腰,洞穴,草地平原。每个场地都由居住者使用和修改 – 火灾,房屋,道路,墓地建成;农田被耕种和耕种;节日举行。由于气候变化,洪水,疾病,每个地点最终都被废弃了。当考古学家到达时,遗址被遗弃了数年或数千年,暴露于天气,动物挖洞和人类借用留下的材料。网站形成过程包括所有这些以及更多。正如您可能想象的那样,站点发生的事件的性质和强度变化很大。考古学家Michael B. Schiffer是第一个在20世纪80年代明确阐述这一概念的人,他将网站形式大致分为工作,自然和文化转型两大类。自然变换正在进行中,可以分配到几大类中的一个;文化的人可以在遗弃或埋葬时结束,但在种类上是无限的或接近它的。由自然引起的场地变化(Schiffer缩写为N-Transforms)取决于场地的年龄,当地气候(过去和现在),位置和环境,以及职业的类型和复杂程度。在史前的狩猎采集者职业中,自然是主要的复杂因素:移动狩猎 – 采集者对村民或城市居民的修改比他们当地环境更少。

新西兰奥塔哥大学论文代写:场地形成过程

Site formation process – or, more simply, the formation process – refers to events that create and affect archaeological sites before, during, and after human occupation. To best understand archaeological sites, the researchers collected evidence of natural and cultural events taking place there. A good analogy of an archaeological site is a paimpsest, a medieval manuscript that is written over and over again, erasing and writing. The archaeological site is the remains of human behavior, stoneware, house foundations and garbage dumps left after the occupants leave. However, each site is created in a specific environment – lakeshore, mountainside, cave, grassland plain. Each site is used and modified by the occupants – fires, houses, roads, cemeteries are built; farmland is cultivated and cultivated; festivals are held. Due to climate change, floods, and diseases, each location was eventually abandoned. When archaeologists arrived, the site was abandoned for years or thousands of years, exposed to the weather, animals burrowing and human borrowed materials. The website formation process includes all of these and more. As you might imagine, the nature and intensity of events happening at the site vary greatly. Archaeologist Michael B. Schiffer was the first person to articulate the concept in the 1980s. He divided the form of the website into two categories: work, nature and cultural transformation. Natural transformations are in progress and can be assigned to one of several major categories; cultural ones can end when abandoned or buried, but are infinite or close to them in kind. Naturally induced site changes (Schiffer is abbreviated as N-Transforms) depend on the age of the site, the local climate (past and present), location and environment, and the type and complexity of the occupation. In prehistoric hunter-gatherer occupations, nature is the main complex factor: mobile hunting – collectors modify villagers or urban residents less than their local environment.

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