为了量化这种经济价值,经济学家只需将为市场中所有参与者(或旁观者)创造的价值加起来。通过这样做,经济学家可以计算税收,补贴,价格控制,贸易政策和其他形式的监管(或放松管制)的经济影响。也就是说,在查看此类分析时,必须牢记一些事项。首先,因为经济学家只是将每个市场参与者创造的价值(美元)加起来,他们隐含地假设比尔盖茨或沃伦巴菲特的价值相当于泵送比尔盖茨汽油的人的价值1美元或者沃伦巴菲特早上喝咖啡。同样,福利分析通常将市场中消费者的价值和市场中生产者的价值汇总起来。通过这样做,经济学家还假设加油站服务员或咖啡师的一美元价值与一家大公司股东的价值相同。 (然而,如果您考虑到咖啡师也是大公司的股东的可能性,这并不像最初看起来那样不合理。)其次,福利分析只计算税收中的美元数而不是价值税收最终花在什么上。理想情况下,税收收入将用于对社会而言比税收成本更高的项目,但实际情况并非如此。即使是这样,也很难将特定市场的税收与该市场的税收收入最终为社会购买。因此,经济学家故意将有多少税收产生的分析以及这些税收资金的消费价值分开。在查看经济福利分析时,要记住这两个问题很重要,但它们并不能使分析无关紧要。相反,了解市场创造的总量中有多少价值(或通过监管创造或销毁)有助于正确评估整体价值与公平或公平之间的权衡。经济学家经常发现效率,或者最大化经济蛋糕的整体规模,与一些公平的概念不一致,或者以一种被认为是公平的方式划分这个蛋糕,因此能够量化至少一方的关键是至关重要的。权衡。总的来说,教科书经济学对市场创造的整体价值得出了积极的结论,并让哲学家和决策者做出关于什么是公平的规范性陈述。尽管如此,重要的是要了解当实施“公平”结果以确定权衡是否值得时,经济蛋糕的收缩程度。

新西兰奥塔哥大学经济学Essay代写:经济价值

To quantify this economic value, economists simply add up the value created for all participants (or bystanders) in the market. By doing so, economists can calculate the economic impact of taxes, subsidies, price controls, trade policies, and other forms of regulation (or deregulation). That is to say, there are some things to keep in mind when reviewing such an analysis. First, because economists only add up the value created by each market participant (US dollars), they implicitly assume that the value of Bill Gates or Warren Buffett is equivalent to the value of a person pumping Bill Gates gasoline. Or Warren Buffett drinks coffee in the morning. Similarly, welfare analysis typically aggregates the value of consumers in the market with the value of producers in the market. By doing so, economists also assume that the dollar value of a gas station attendant or barista is the same as the value of a large company shareholder. (However, if you consider the possibility that the barista is also a shareholder of a large company, this is not as unreasonable as it initially seemed.) Second, the welfare analysis only calculates the dollar amount in the tax, not the value tax. . Ideally, tax revenues will be used for projects that are more costly to society than taxes, but this is not the case. Even so, it is difficult to ultimately tax the specific market and the tax revenue of the market for social purchases. Therefore, economists deliberately separate the analysis of how much tax is generated and the value of consumption of these tax funds. When reviewing the economic welfare analysis, it’s important to keep in mind that these two issues are important, but they don’t make the analysis irrelevant. Conversely, understanding how much value (or creating or destroying it through regulation) in the total amount created by the market helps to correctly assess the trade-off between overall value and fairness or equity. Economists often find efficiency, or maximize the overall size of the economic cake, inconsistent with some fair concepts, or divide the cake in a way that is considered fair, so it is crucial to be able to quantify at least one of the keys. trade off. In general, textbook economics draws positive conclusions about the overall value of market creation and allows philosophers and decision makers to make normative statements about what is fair. Nonetheless, it is important to understand the extent to which economic cakes shrink when implementing “fair” results to determine if the trade-offs are worthwhile.

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