布克·T·华盛顿是十九世纪末二十世纪初著名的黑人教育家和种族领袖。1881年,他在阿拉巴马州创办了塔斯基吉学院,并监督其成长为一所备受尊敬的黑人大学。出生于奴隶制的华盛顿,在黑人和白人中都获得了权力和影响力。虽然华盛顿在促进黑人教育方面所起的作用赢得了许多人的尊敬,但他也因为对白人过于宽容,在平等权利问题上过于自满而受到批评。布克·T·华盛顿1856年4月出生于弗吉尼亚州黑尔福特的一个小农场。他被命名为“托利弗”,但没有姓。他的母亲,简,是个奴隶,当种植园厨师。根据布克的中等肤色和浅灰色的眼睛,历史学家认为他的父亲——他从来不知道——是一个白人,可能来自邻近的种植园。布克有一个哥哥,约翰,也是白人的父亲。简和她的儿子们占据了一间狭小的单间小屋,有一层泥土地板。他们单调乏味的家缺少合适的窗户,也没有床供居住者使用。布克的家人很少有足够的食物吃,有时采取偷窃来补充他们微薄的食物。布克大约四岁的时候,他在农场里做了些小杂活。随着他的个子越来越高,他的工作量也相应增加了。大约1860岁的时候,简嫁给了华盛顿弗格森,他是附近一个种植园的奴隶。布克后来把继父的名字作为姓氏。在内战期间,布克种植园的奴隶,像南方的许多奴隶一样,即使在1863年林肯《解放宣言》发布之后,仍继续为农场主工作。然而,战争结束时,布克·T·华盛顿和他的家人已经准备好迎接新的机会。1865年,战争结束后,他们搬到了西弗吉尼亚州的马尔登,布克的继父在那里找到了一份工作,在当地盐厂当盐包装工。他们的新家位于拥挤肮脏的街区,那里的生活条件并不比种植园里的好。布克和约翰到达后几天就被派去和他们的继父一起工作,他们把盐装进桶里。9岁的布克看不起这份工作,但是找到了这份工作的一个好处:他学会了通过记下盐桶边上的数字来识别自己的数字。像内战后时期的许多奴隶一样,布克渴望学习如何阅读和写作。他母亲给他一本拼写书,他很快就学会了自己的字母表。当附近的一个社区开办了一所黑人学校时,布克乞求离开,但是他的继父拒绝了,坚持说家里需要他从盐盒里带回来的钱。布克最终找到了一个晚上上学的方法。布克十岁的时候,他的继父带他离开学校,送他到附近的煤矿工作。布克在那里工作了将近两年,这时一个机会出现了,这将改变他的生活变得更好。

新西兰奥克兰大学论文代写:布克 华盛顿

Booker T. Washington was a famous black educator and racial leader at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1881, he founded Tuskegee College in Alabama and supervised its growth into a highly respected black university. Washington, born in slavery, gained power and influence among blacks and whites. Although Washington’s role in promoting black education has won the respect of many people, he has also been criticized for being too tolerant of whites and too complacent about equal rights. Booker T. Washington was born in April 1856 on a small farm in Halford, Virginia. He was named “Toliver” but had no surname. His mother, Jane, was a slave and a plantation cook. According to Booker’s medium-skinned and grayish eyes, historians believe that his father, whom he never knew, was a white man, probably from a nearby plantation. Booker had a brother, John, and a white father. Jane and her sons occupied a small single cabin with a layer of mud floor. Their dull home lacks proper windows and beds for the occupants. Buck’s family seldom had enough food to eat, sometimes stealing to supplement their meager food. When Buck was about four years old, he did some small chores on the farm. As he grew taller and taller, his workload increased accordingly. At the age of about 1860, Jane married Ferguson of Washington, a slave to a nearby plantation. Burke later took his stepfather’s name as his surname. During the Civil War, slaves at Booker Plantation, like many slaves in the South, continued to work for farmers even after the release of Lincoln’s Emancipation Declaration in 1863. At the end of the war, however, Booker T. Washington and his family were ready for new opportunities. In 1865, after the war, they moved to Malden, West Virginia, where Buck’s stepfather found a job as a salt packer in a local salt factory. Their new home is located in a crowded and dirty neighborhood, where living conditions are not better than those in plantations. A few days after their arrival, Buck and John were sent to work with their stepfather, who filled the bucket with salt. Nine-year-old Buck despised the job, but found one of the benefits of it: he learned to recognize his numbers by writing down the numbers on the edge of the salt bucket. Like many slaves in the post-Civil War era, Booker was eager to learn how to read and write. His mother gave him a spelling book, and he soon learned his alphabet. When a neighborhood opened a black school, Buck begged to leave, but his stepfather refused, insisting that the family needed the money he brought back from the salt box. Buck eventually found a way to go to school one night. When Buck was ten years old, his stepfather took him out of school and sent him to work in a nearby coal mine. Buck worked there for nearly two years, and then an opportunity came up that would change his life for the better.                 报错

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