在过去的几十年里,景观考古学已经以多种方式定义。它既是考古学技术,也是理论建构:考古学家将过去视为人与环境融合的一种方式。部分由于新技术(地理信息系统,遥感和地球物理调查,特别是对这项研究都做出了巨大贡献)而部分出生,景观考古研究促进了广泛的区域研究和对传统研究中不易察觉的要素的检验,如道路和农田。虽然现在形式的景观考古学显然是一项现代调查研究,但它的根源早在18世纪威廉斯图克利的古文物研究中就已经找到了,并且在20世纪初,由地理学家卡尔绍尔的作品发现。第二次世界大战影响了这项研究,使学者更容易获得航空摄影。朱利安·斯图尔德和戈登·威利在本世纪中叶创建的聚落模式研究影响了后来的学者,他们与地理学家合作开展了中心地理论和空间考古统计模型等基于景观的研究。到了20世纪70年代,“景观考古学”这个术语开始使用,这个想法开始形成。到20世纪90年代,后处理运动正在进行中,特别是景观考古学已经发生了变化。批评表明,景观考古学着重于景观的地理特征,但是,像许多“过程性”考古学一样,人们离开了。缺少的是人们对塑造环境的影响以及人与环境相互交叉和相互影响的方式。其他关键的反对意见在于技术本身,用于定义景观的地理信息系统和卫星图像以及用于定义景观的空气照片使研究与研究人员保持距离,使研究的视觉方面优于其他感性方面。查看地图,即使是大规模和详细的地图,也可以将区域分析定义并限制为特定数据集,从而使研究人员能够“隐藏”科学客观性,并忽略与实际生活在景观中相关的感性方面。作为新技术的结果,一些景观考古学家试图利用超文本理论建立景观的感性和居住它的人。奇怪的是,互联网的影响导致了考古学作为一个整体的更广泛的非线性表现,特别是景观考古学。这涉及在标准文本中插入诸如重建图纸或替代解释或口述历史或想象事件之类的侧边栏元素,以及尝试通过使用三维软件支持的重建从文本限制策略中释放思想。这些侧栏允许学者继续以学术的方式呈现数据,但可以获得更广泛的解释性话语。

新西兰奥克兰大学建筑学论文代写:景观考古学

Landscape archaeology has been defined in many ways over the past few decades. It is both archaeological technology and theoretical construction: archaeologists regard the past as a way of integrating people and the environment. Partly born due to new technologies (geographic information systems, remote sensing and geophysical surveys, especially for this research), landscape archaeology has promoted a wide range of regional studies and elements that are not easily detectable in traditional research. Inspections such as roads and farmland. Although the current form of landscape archaeology is clearly a modern investigation, its roots have been found in the study of William Stuckley’s ancient artifacts in the 18th century, and in the early 20th century, by the geographer Karlsauer. The work was discovered. The Second World War affected this research, making it easier for scholars to obtain aerial photography. The study of the settlement model created by Julian Stewart and Gordon Willy in the middle of this century influenced later scholars who collaborated with geographers to conduct landscape-based research such as central theory and spatial archaeological statistical models. In the 1970s, the term “landscape archaeology” was used, and the idea began to take shape. By the 1990s, post-processing movements were underway, especially landscape archaeology. Criticism suggests that landscape archaeology focuses on the geographical features of the landscape, but, like many “procedural” archaeology, people leave. What is missing is the way people influence the shaping of the environment and how people and the environment cross and interact. Other key objections are the technology itself, the geographic information systems and satellite images used to define the landscape, and the air photos used to define the landscape, keeping research and researchers away, making the visual aspects of research superior to other perceptual aspects. Viewing maps, even large-scale and detailed maps, can define and limit regional analysis to specific data sets, allowing researchers to “hide” scientific objectivity and ignore the perceptual aspects associated with real life in the landscape. As a result of the new technology, some landscape archaeologists have tried to use hypertext theory to build the sensibility of the landscape and the people who live it. Curiously, the influence of the Internet has led to a wider range of non-linear manifestations of archaeology as a whole, especially landscape archaeology. This involves inserting sidebar elements such as reconstructed drawings or alternative interpretations or oral history or imaginary events into standard text, and attempts to free up ideas from text restriction strategies by using 3D software-supported reconstruction. These sidebars allow scholars to continue to present data in an academic manner, but can obtain a wider range of interpretative discourses.

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