1971年6月,曾为兰德公司智库工作的前美国军事分析家丹尼尔埃尔斯伯格在向纽约时报和其他报纸发表五角大楼文件时发起了一场政治风暴,这是五角大楼关于总统理查德尼克松及其政府的绝密报道。在进行和继续美国参与越南战争的决策过程中。 1973年1月3日,埃尔斯伯格被指控违反了1917年的间谍法,以及盗窃和阴谋。总之,对他的指控最高可判处115年徒刑。然而,1973年5月11日,在发现政府非法收集并处理了针对他的证据之后,威廉·马修·拜恩法官驳回了对埃尔斯伯格的所有指控。 2013年7月,前美国陆军私人头等舱切尔西曼宁因违反“间谍法”而被军方军事法庭定罪,涉及她将近750,000份关于伊拉克和阿富汗战争的机密或敏感军事文件披露给揭发者网站维基解密。这些文件载有关于被关押在关塔那摩湾的700多名囚犯,美国在阿富汗空袭,杀害平民,25万多条敏感的美国外交电报以及其他陆军报告的信息。最初面临22项指控,其中包括帮助可能带来死刑的敌人,曼宁对其中的10项控罪表示认罪。在2013年6月的法庭军事审判中,曼宁因21项指控而被定罪,但被指控无罪。曼宁被判处在堪萨斯州莱文沃思堡最高安全纪律营地服刑35年。然而,在2017年1月17日,美国总统巴拉克奥巴马将她的判决减为她已经被关押的近七年。

新西兰奥克兰大学Essay代写:兰德公司智库

In June 1971, former US military analyst Daniel Elsberg, who worked for the RAND think tank, launched a political storm when he published the Pentagon documents to the New York Times and other newspapers. This is the Pentagon’s president Richard. Nixon and his government’s top secret report. In the process of making and continuing the US decision to participate in the Vietnam War. On January 3, 1973, Elsberg was accused of violating the 1917 espionage law, as well as theft and conspiracy. In short, the charges against him can be punishable by up to 115 years in prison. However, on May 11, 1973, after discovering that the government had illegally collected and processed evidence against him, Judge William Matthew Byrne dismissed all charges against Elsberg. In July 2013, former US Army private first class Chelsea Manning was convicted by a military military court for violating the “spy law”, involving her disclosure of nearly 750,000 confidential or sensitive military documents on Iraq and Afghanistan wars to the whistleblower website wiki Decrypt. The documents contain more than 700 prisoners held in Guantanamo Bay, US air strikes in Afghanistan, killing civilians, more than 250,000 sensitive US diplomatic cables and other Army-reported information. Initially faced with 22 allegations, including helping enemies who may bring the death penalty, Manning pleaded guilty to 10 of the charges. In a court trial in June 2013, Manning was convicted of 21 charges but was accused of not guilty. Manning was sentenced to 35 years in the highest security discipline camp in Leavenworth Fort, Kansas. However, on January 17, 2017, US President Barack Obama reduced her judgment to nearly seven years in which she had been detained.

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