直到18世纪末,科学才提供了原子存在的具体证据。 Antoine Lavoisier在1789年制定了质量守恒定律,该定律指出反应产物的质量与反应物的质量相同。约瑟夫·路易斯·普鲁斯特(Joseph Louis Proust)在1799年提出了一定比例的定律,即一个化合物中的元素质量总是以相同的比例出现。这些理论并没有提到原子,但是约翰道尔顿在它们的基础上发展了多重比例的定律,它表明化合物中元素质量的比例是小的整数。道尔顿的多重比例定律来自实验数据。他提出每种化学元素都由一种不能被任何化学方法破坏的单一原子组成。他的口头陈述(1803年)和出版物(1805年)标志着科学原子理论的开始。 1811年,Amedeo Avogadro在Dalton的理论中纠正了一个问题,他提出在相同温度和压力下等量的气体含有相同数量的颗粒。阿伏加德罗定律使得准确估计元素的原子质量成为可能,并明确了原子和分子之间的区别。 1827年,植物学家罗伯特·布朗(Robert Brown)对原子理论做出了另一项重大贡献,他注意到漂浮在水中的灰尘颗粒似乎随机移动,原因不明。 1905年,阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦假定布朗运动是由于水分子的运动。该模型及其在1908年由Jean Perrin验证支持原子理论和粒子理论

新西兰奥克兰大学Assignment代写:原子理论史

It took until the end of the 18th century for science to provide concrete evidence of the existence of atoms. Antoine Lavoisier formulated the law of conservation of mass in 1789, which states the mass of the products of a reaction is the same as the mass of reactants. Joseph Louis Proust proposed the law of definite proportions in 1799, which states the masses of elements in a compound always occur in the same proportion. These theories did not reference atoms, yet John Dalton built upon them to develop the law of multiple proportions, which states the ratio of masses of elements in a compound are small whole numbers. Dalton’s law of multiple proportions drew from experimental data. He proposed each chemical element consists of a single type of atoms that could not be destroyed by any chemical means. His oral presentation (1803) and publication (1805) marked the beginning of the scientific atomic theory. In 1811, Amedeo Avogadro corrected a problem with Dalton’s theory when he proposed equal volumes of gases at equal temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles. Avogadro’s law made it possible to accurately estimate the atomic masses of element and made clear there was a distinction between atoms and molecules. Another significant contribution to atomic theory was made in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed dust particles floating in water seemed to move randomly for no known reason. In 1905, Albert Einstein postulated the Brownian motion was due to the movement of water molecules. The model and its validation in 1908 by Jean Perrin supported atomic theory and particle theory

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