对特定社交群体持有隐含偏见可以决定您如何对待该群体中的个人。隐性偏见影响整个社会的人类行为,包括在教室,工作场所和法律系统中。隐性偏见导致一种称为刻板印象威胁的效应,当个体内化关于它们所属的组的负面刻板印象时就会发生这种效应。研究人员通过标准化的测试研究证明了这一效果。具有类似SAT成绩的黑人和白人大学生进行了30分钟的大学水平标准化考试。一半的学生被告知测试测量了智力,而另一组被告知测试是一个解决问题的活动,与能力不相符。在第一组中,黑人学生的表现不如白人同学;在第二组中,黑人学生的表现与他们的白人同龄人相当。研究人员得出结论,当研究人员表示测试智力时,第一组受到刻板印象威胁的影响。在比较女性和男性在数学考试中的表现时,也发现了类似的结果。虽然大多数发达国家都禁止明确形式的工作场所歧视,但隐性偏见在专业领域发挥着重要作用。研究表明,相同的简历会收到不同数量的回调,具体取决于文档顶部的名称。在所有行业中,通常与黑人相关联的名称的简历比具有与白人相关联的名称的回复更少。在性别和年龄方面也表现出可比较的隐性偏见。隐性偏见和种族主义是相关的概念,但它们没有相同的含义。隐性偏见是关于特定群体的无意识的一组关联。种族主义是对特定种族群体的个人的偏见,可以是明示的也可以是隐含的。隐性偏见对法律制度产生重大影响。有证据表明,黑人被告比白人被告更有可能在法庭上受到严厉对待。检察官更有可能指控黑人被告,并且不太可能向他们提出辩诉交易。向白人被告提供的辩诉交易往往比向黑人或拉丁裔被告提供的更为慷慨。此外,陪审团更有可能对与大多数陪审团的种族背景不同的种族的被告表现出偏见。 IAT测试显示黑色和有罪之间的隐含关联。隐性偏见会影响教师如何在课堂上对待学生。耶鲁大学儿童研究中心进行的研究发现,黑人儿童,特别是黑人男孩,比白人儿童更有可能因为“挑战行为”而被学校开除和停学。该研究还发现,当准备寻找这种具有挑战性的行为时,教师往往会更长时间地看待黑人儿童,特别是男孩。结果表明,隐性种族偏见会影响教室的教育机会和成就。隐性偏见可能导致隐含的种族主义行为,例如当教师对黑人儿童比白人儿童更严厉地训练时,但许多人隐藏着隐含的偏见而没有表现出公开的种族主义。通过了解我们自己的隐含偏见并积极抵制它们,我们可以避免使有害的种族主义刻板印象和偏见永久化。

新加坡国立大学社会学Assignment代写:社会学中的隐含偏见

Holding an implicit bias towards a particular social group can determine how you treat an individual from that group. Implicit biases affect human behavior throughout society, including in classrooms, workplaces, and the legal system. Implicit bias results in an effect called stereotype threat, which occurs when an individual internalizes negative stereotypes about a group to which they belong. Researchers demonstrated this effect through a standardized test study. Black and White college students with similar SAT scores were given a 30-minute college-level standardized test. Half of the students were told that the test measured intelligence, while the other group was told that the test was a problem solving activity that did not correspond to ability. In the first group, Black students performed less well than their White peers; in the second group, Black students’ performance was equal to that of their White peers. The researchers concluded that the first group had been affected by stereotype threat when the researchers stated that the test measured intelligence. Similar results have also been found when comparing female and male performance on math exams. Although explicit forms of workplace discrimination are banned in most developed countries, implicit bias plays a significant role in the professional world. Studies have shown that identical resumes receive a different number of callbacks depending on the name at the top of the document. Across all industries, resumes with a name commonly associated with Black individuals received fewer callbacks than those with names associated with White individuals. Comparable implicit bias has also been shown in relation to gender and age. Implicit bias and racism are related concepts, but they do not have the same meaning. Implicit bias is an unconsciously held set of associations about a particular group. Racism is prejudice against individuals from a specific racial group, and can be either explicit or implicit. Implicit bias has a significant impact on the legal system. Evidence suggests that Black defendants are more likely to be treated harshly in the courtroom than White defendants. Prosecutors are more likely to charge Black defendants and less likely to offer them plea bargains. Plea bargains offered to White defendants tend to be more generous than those offered to Black or Latino defendants. Furthermore, juries are more likely to exhibit bias against defendants of a race different from the racial background of the majority of the jury. IAT tests have shown implicit associations between the words black and guilty. Implicit bias affects how teachers treat students in the classroom. Research conducted by the Yale Child Study Center found that Black children, particularly Black boys, are more likely to be expelled and suspended from preschool for “challenging behavior” than White children. The research also found that, when primed to look for such challenging behavior, teachers tended to look longer at Black children, particularly boys. The results suggested that implicit racial bias affects educational access and achievement in the classroom. Implicit bias can lead to implicitly racist behavior, like when a teacher disciplines Black children more harshly than White children, but many individuals harbor implicit biases without ever displaying overt racism. By becoming aware of our own implicit biases and actively resisting them, we can avoid perpetuating harmful racist stereotypes and prejudices.

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