出生于既是艺术家的父母,也总是鼓励年轻的亚历山大·考尔德创作。他八岁时就开了他的第一个工作室。他的父亲和祖父都是接受公共委托的雕塑家。他的祖父亚历山大·米尔恩·考尔德(Alexander Milne Calder)以雕刻威廉·佩恩(William Penn)的雕像而闻名,该雕像位于费城市政厅的顶端。考尔德的母亲是一位在巴黎索邦大学学习的肖像画家。因为他的父亲收到了多个公共佣金,亚历山大·考尔德经常在小时候搬家。在高中时期,他从纽约市来回移动到加利福尼亚。在大四结束时,考尔德的父母搬到了纽约市,当时他和旧金山的朋友一起在那里从高中毕业。尽管有他的背景,但在他父母的催促下,亚历山大·考尔德在艺术之外追求大学教育。他于1919年毕业于史蒂文斯理工学院,获得机械工程学位。然而,1922年在客船上工作的经历改变了Calder的生活方式。一天早上,他在危地马拉海岸醒来,目睹了太阳升起,月亮落在对面的视野中。到1923年,他搬回纽约并参加艺术学生联盟的课程。华盛顿特区国家美术馆东楼的无标题铝和钢移动悬挂在头顶上。1925年,在为国家警察公报工作期间,亚历山大·考尔德被送往林林兄弟马戏团的草图场景两周。他爱上了马戏团,影响了他余生的工作。考尔德创作了一系列由铁丝,木头,布料和其他物体雕刻而成的马戏团人物。在20世纪20年代后期,他使用小型雕塑作为“表演”的一部分,可以持续长达两个小时。他的努力现在被认为是一种非常早期的表演艺术。在与Marcel Duchamp,JoanMiró和Fernand Leger等20世纪其他主要艺术家交流时,Calder开始开发具有离散可移动部件的抽象雕塑。马塞尔杜尚称他们为“手机”,名字一直停滞不前。他的没有运动的雕塑后来被称为“stabiles”。亚历山大·考尔德说,用彩色纸张矩形观看Piet Mondrian的抽象作品的经历“震惊”了他在完全抽象中的工作。卡尔德是1943年在纽约大都会艺术博物馆举办的第一次大型回顾展的主题。他是那种以这种方式获得荣誉的最年轻的艺术家。马塞尔杜尚是其中一位策展人。在第二次世界大战期间,金属短缺导致考尔德与木材广泛合作。 1949年,他创建了迄今为止最大的移动设备,即费城艺术博物馆的国际移动。它的尺寸为16’x 16’。

加拿大温哥华大学文学论文代写:亚历山大·考尔德

Born both as an artist’s parents and always encouraged young Alexander Calder to create. When he was eight years old, he opened his first studio. His father and grandfather were sculptors who were commissioned by the public. His grandfather, Alexander Milne Calder, is known for carving the statue of William Penn, which is located at the top of the Philadelphia City Hall. Calder’s mother is a portrait painter studying at the Sorbonne University in Paris. Because his father received multiple public commissions, Alexander Calder often moved when he was a child. In high school, he moved back and forth from New York City to California. At the end of his senior year, Calder’s parents moved to New York City, where he and his friends in San Francisco graduated from high school. Despite his background, Alexander Calder pursued university education outside of art, urging his parents. He graduated from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1919 with a degree in mechanical engineering. However, the experience of working on a passenger ship in 1922 changed the lifestyle of Calder. One morning, he woke up on the coast of Guatemala, witnessing the rising sun and the moon falling in the opposite direction. By 1923, he moved back to New York and took courses in the Art Students League. The untitled aluminum and steel moving east of the National Gallery of Washington, DC, hangs overhead. In 1925, during his work for the National Police Bulletin, Alexander Calder was sent to the Linlin Brothers Circus for two weeks. He fell in love with the circus and affected the rest of his life. Calder created a series of circus characters carved from wire, wood, cloth and other objects. In the late 1920s, he used small sculptures as part of the “performance” that lasted up to two hours. His efforts are now considered to be a very early performing arts. While interacting with other major artists of the 20th century, such as Marcel Duchamp, JoanMiró and Fernand Leger, Calder began developing abstract sculptures with discrete moving parts. Marcel Duchamp called them “mobile phones” and the name has been stagnant. His movement without movement was later called “stabiles.” Alexander Calder said that the experience of viewing Piet Mondrian’s abstract work in a colorful paper rectangle “stunned” his work in complete abstraction. Calder was the subject of the first major retrospective at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 1943. He is the youngest artist to receive honors in this way. Marcel Duchamp is one of the curators. During the Second World War, metal shortages led to a wide cooperation between Calder and timber. In 1949, he created the largest mobile device to date, the International Mobile of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Its size is 16′ x 16′.

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