军事社会学是对军队的社会学研究。它审查了军队，战斗，军人家庭，军事社会组织，战争与和平以及军队福利等军事招募，种族和性别代表等问题。军事社会学是现场社会学中相对较小的子领域。很少有大学提供军事社会学课程，只有少数学术专业人士负责研究和/或撰写军事社会学。近年来，大多数可归类为军事社会学的研究都是由私人研究机构或军事机构完成的，如兰德公司，布鲁金斯学会，人力资源研究组织，陆军研究所和国防部长办公室。以下是军事社会学研究的一些问题：服务基础。第二次世界大战后美国军事社会学中最重要的问题之一是从起草转向志愿服务。这是一个巨大的变化，当时的影响是未知的。社会学家现在并且仍然对这种变化如何影响社会感兴趣，这些人是谁自愿进入军队，为什么，以及这种变化是否影响了军队的代表性（例如，是否有更多未受过教育的少数民族自愿进入而不是被选中在草案中）？此外，进行这些研究的研究团队通常是跨学科的，来自社会学，心理学，政治学，经济学和商业的研究人员。这绝不意味着军事社会学是一个小领域。军队是美国最大的单一政府机构，围绕它的问题可能会对军事政策和社会学作为一门学科的发展产生重要影响。战斗社会学。对战斗社会学的研究涉及战斗单位所涉及的社会过程。例如，研究人员经常研究单位凝聚力和士气，领导者 – 部队关系以及战斗动机。家庭问题。过去五十年来，已婚军人的比例大大增加，这意味着军队中有更多的家庭和家庭关注。社会学家有兴趣研究家庭政策问题，例如军队配偶的角色和权利以及部署单亲军人时的托儿问题。社会学家也对与家庭有关的军事福利感兴趣，如住房改善，医疗保险，海外学校和儿童保育，以及它们如何影响家庭和更大的社会。社会代表和访问。社会代表性是指军队代表其所在人口的程度。社会学家对谁被代表，为什么存在虚假陈述以及代表性在整个历史中如何变化感兴趣。例如，在越南战争时期，一些民权领袖声称非洲裔美国人在武装部队中的比例过高，因此造成了不公平的伤亡。社会组织。在过去的几十年里，军队的组织发生了很多变化 – 从草案到自愿入伍，从战斗密集型工作到技术和支持工作，从领导到理性管理。有些人认为军队正在从一个被规范价值观合法化的机构转变为一个被市场导向合法化的职业。社会学家有兴趣研究这些组织变化以及它们如何影响军队和社会其他人。在妇女权利运动中，性别代表性也成为一个主要问题，在妇女参与军队方面产生了重大的政策变化。近年来，当比尔克林顿总统推翻对男女同性恋者的军事禁令时，性取向首次成为重大军事政策辩论的焦点。在美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马（Barack Obama）废除“不要问，不要告诉”政策以便男女同性恋者现在可以在军队中公开服务之后，这个话题再次成为人们关注的焦点。军队作为福利。有些人认为，军队的一个角色是为社会中较不利的人提供职业和教育进步的机会。社会学家有兴趣研究军队的这一角色，他们利用这些机会，以及军队的训练和经验是否与民事经验相比具有任何优势。
Military sociology is the sociological study of the military. It examines issues such as military recruiting, race and gender representation in the military, combat, military families, military social organization, war and peace, and the military as welfare. Military sociology is a relatively minor subfield within the field sociology. There are few universities that offer courses on military sociology and only a handful of academic professionals that conduct research and/or write about military sociology. In recent years, most of the studies that can be classified as military sociology have been done by private research institutes or in military agencies, such as the Rand Corporation, the Brookings Institute, the Human Resources Research Organization, the Army Research Institute, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Following are some of the issues studied under military sociology: The Basis of Service. One of the most significant issues in military sociology in the United States post-World War II is the shift from drafting to voluntary service. This was a huge change and one whose impact at the time was unknown. Sociologists were and still are interested in how this change affected society, who the individuals were who entered the military voluntarily and why, and whether this change affected the representativeness of the military (for example, are there more uneducated minorities who enter voluntarily than were selected in the draft)?Furthermore, the research teams that conduct these studies are generally interdisciplinary, with researchers from sociology, psychology, political science, economics, and business. This by no means implies that military sociology is a small field. The military is the largest single government agency in the United States and the issues addressed surrounding it can have important ramifications for both military policy and the development of sociology as a discipline. Sociology of Combat. The study of the sociology of combat deals with the social processes involved in combat units. For example, researchers often study unit cohesion and morale, leader-troop relations, and the motivation for combat. Family Issues. The proportion of military personnel who are married has increased greatly over the past fifty years, which means there are also more families and family concerns represented in the military. Sociologists are interested in looking at family policy issues, such as the role and rights of military spouses and the issue of child-care when single-parent military members are deployed. Sociologists are also interested in military benefits related to families, like housing improvements, medical insurance, overseas schools, and child care, and how they impact both the families and the larger society. Social Representation and Access. Social representation refers to the degree in which the military represents the population from which it has been drawn. Sociologists are interested in who is being represented, why the misrepresentations exist, and how representativeness has changed throughout history. For example, in the Vietnam War era, some civil rights leaders alleged that African Americans were overrepresented in the armed forces and therefore accounted for an unfair amount of casualties. Social Organization. The organization of the military has changed in many ways over the past several decades – from the draft to voluntary enlistment, from combat-intensive jobs to technical and support jobs, and from leadership to rational management. Some people argue that the military is changing from an institution legitimized by normative values to an occupation legitimized by a market orientation. Sociologists are interested in studying these organizational changes and how they impact both those in the military and the rest of society. Gender representation also developed as a major concern during the women’s rights movement, generating major policy changes concerning the participation of women in the military. In more recent years, when President Bill Clinton overturned the military ban on gays and lesbians, sexual orientation became the focus of major military policy debate for the first time. This topic has come into the spotlight once again after President Barack Obama repealed the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy so that gays and lesbians can now serve openly in the military. The Military as Welfare. Some people argue that one of the military’s roles is to provide opportunity for occupational and educational advancement to the less advantaged in society. Sociologists are interested in looking at this role of the military, who takes advantage of the opportunities, and whether the training and experience of the military offer any advantages compared to civilian experiences.