从1957年的迪士尼电影,约翰尼·特雷曼到2015年百老汇热播汉密尔顿,“自由之子”被描绘成一群早期的美国爱国者,他们团结起来的殖民地同胞争取殖民地的自由从压迫性的统治英国皇冠。在汉密尔顿,人物赫拉克勒斯穆利根唱着,“我和自由之子一起奔跑,我很喜欢它。”但是除了舞台和屏幕之外,自由之子是真的吗?他们真的喜欢革命吗?实际上,“自由之子”是美国革命初期在十三个美国殖民地中形成的政治上持不同政见者的秘密组织,致力于打击英国政府强加给他们的税收。从1766年初签署的该组织自己的宪法来看,很明显,自由之子无意开始革命。 “我们对他最神圣的陛下,国王乔治三世,我们权利的主权保护者以及法律的继承建立起了最崇高的敬意,并将永远忠于他和他的王室,”该文件说。虽然该组织的行动助长了革命的火焰,但“自由之子”只要求英国政府公平对待殖民者。该组织最出名的是领导殖民者反对1765年的英国印花税法案,以及它仍然经常被引用的号召,即“没有代表的没有税收”的号召。在释放邮票后,自由之子正式解散。法案,后来的分离主义团体利用这个名字匿名召唤追随者聚集在“自由树”,波士顿着名的榆树被认为是反对英国政府的第一次叛乱行为。 1765年,美国殖民地受到1万多名英国士兵的保护。由于生活在殖民地的这些士兵进驻营区和装备的费用持续增长,英国政府决定美国殖民者应该支付他们的份额。为了实现这一目标,英国议会颁布了一系列针对殖民者的税收。许多殖民者发誓不缴纳税款。殖民者在议会中没有代表,他们认为税收是在未经任何形式的同意的情况下颁布的。这种信念导致他们要求“没有代表就没有税收”。到目前为止,这些英国税收中最热烈反对的是,1765年的“印花税法案”要求美国殖民地生产的许多印刷品只能在伦敦制造的纸上印刷。并带有浮雕的英国印花税票。报纸,杂志,小册子,扑克牌,法律文件以及当时在殖民地印刷的许多其他物品都需要印章。此外,邮票只能用有效的英国硬币购买,而不是更容易获得的殖民地纸币。 “邮票法”引发了整个殖民地迅速增长的反对声。一些殖民地通过立法正式谴责它,而公众则以示威和偶尔的破坏行为作为回应。到1765年夏天,组织反对“印花税法案”的几个分散团体共同组成了自由之子。

澳大利亚西澳大学税法论文代写:印花税法案

From the 1957 Disney film, Johnny Treman to the 2015 Broadway hit Hamilton, the “son of freedom” was portrayed as a group of early American patriots, and their united colonial compatriots fought for colonial freedom from oppressive rule. British crown. In Hamilton, the character Hercules Mulligan sang, “I run with the son of freedom, I like it very much.” But apart from the stage and the screen, is the son of freedom true? Do they really like the revolution? In fact, the “son of freedom” was a secret organization of political dissidents formed in thirteen American colonies in the early days of the American Revolution, dedicated to combating the taxes imposed on them by the British government. Judging from the organization’s own constitution signed in early 1766, it is clear that the Son of Freedom has no intention of starting a revolution. “We have established the highest respect for his most sacred His Majesty, King George III, the sovereign protector of our rights and the inheritance of the law, and will always be loyal to him and his royal family,” the document said. Although the actions of the organization fueled the flames of the revolution, the “son of freedom” only required the British government to treat the colonists fairly. The organization is best known for leading the colonists against the British Stamp Tax Act of 1765, and its often cited call for “no taxation without representation”. After the release of the stamp, the son of Freedom officially dissolved. The bill, later separatist groups used this name to anonymously summon followers to gather in the “Freedom Tree”, and Boston’s famous Eucalyptus was considered the first insurgency against the British government. In 1765, the American colony was protected by more than 10,000 British soldiers. As the cost of these soldiers living in the colony and the equipment continues to grow, the British government decided that American colonists should pay their share. To achieve this goal, the British Parliament enacted a series of taxes against colonists. Many colonists have vowed not to pay taxes. The colonists were not represented in the parliament, and they believed that the tax was enacted without any form of consent. This belief led them to demand “no tax without representation”. So far, the most ardent objection to these British taxes is that the 1765 Stamp Tax Act required many prints produced in the US colonies to be printed on paper made in London. It comes with a embossed British stamp. Newspapers, magazines, brochures, playing cards, legal documents, and many other items printed in the colonies at the time required stamps. In addition, stamps can only be purchased with valid British coins, rather than colonial banknotes that are easier to obtain. The “stamp law” triggered the rapid growth of opposition throughout the colony. Some colonies formally condemned it through legislation, while the public responded with demonstrations and occasional sabotage. By the summer of 1765, several decentralized groups that opposed the “stamp tax bill” formed the son of freedom.

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