并非所有价格歧视都是相同的,经济学家通常将价格歧视分为三个不同的类别。一级价格歧视:当生产者向每个人收取他或她完全愿意为商品或服务付款时,存在一级价格歧视。它也被称为完美的价格歧视,并且可能难以实施,因为每个人的支付意愿通常并不明显。二级价格歧视:当公司针对不同的产出收取不同的单位价格时,存在二级价格歧视。二级价格歧视通常会导致购买大量商品的客户降低价格,反之亦然。三级价格歧视:当公司向不同的可识别消费者群体提供不同的价格时,存在三级价格歧视。三度价格歧视的示例包括学生折扣,老年人折扣等。一般而言,需求价格弹性较高的群体在三度价格歧视下的价格低于其他群体,反之亦然。虽然看似违反直觉,但价格歧视的能力实际上可能会降低垄断行为导致的低效率。这是因为价格歧视使公司能够增加产量并为某些客户提供更低的价格,而垄断者可能不愿意降低价格并增加产量,否则如果必须降低价格给所有消费者。为了能够在消费者之间进行价格歧视,企业必须拥有一定的市场力量,而不是在完全竞争的市场中运营。更具体地说,公司必须是其提供的特定商品或服务的唯一生产者。 (请注意,严格来说,这种情况要求生产者是垄断者,但垄断竞争下的产品差异化也可能导致一些价格歧视。)如果不是这种情况,企业将有动力参与竞争。削弱竞争对手对高价消费群体的价格,价格歧视将无法持续。如果生产者想要区分价格,那么生产者产出的转售市场也不存在。如果消费者可以转售公司的产出,那么在价格歧视下提供低价格的消费者可以转售给价格较高的消费者,而对生产者的价格歧视的好处将会消失。

澳大利亚卧龙岗大学经济学Assignment代写:价格歧视的类型

Not all price discrimination is the same, and economists generally organize price discrimination into three separate categories. First-Degree Price Discrimination: First-degree price discrimination exists when a producer charges each individual his or her full willingness to pay for a good or service. It is also referred to as perfect price discrimination, and it can be difficult to implement because it’s generally not obvious what each individual’s willingness to pay is. Second-Degree Price Discrimination: Second-degree price discrimination exists when a firm charges different prices per unit for different quantities of output. Second-degree price discrimination usually results in lower prices for customers buying larger quantities of a good and vice versa. Third-Degree Price Discrimination: Third-degree price discrimination exists when a firm offers different prices to different identifiable groups of consumers. Examples of third-degree price discrimination include student discounts, senior citizen discounts, and so on. In general, groups with higher price elasticity of demand are charged lower prices than other groups under third-degree price discrimination and vice versa. While it may seem counterintuitive, it is possible that the ability to price discriminate actually reduces the inefficiency that is a result of monopolistic behavior. This is because price discrimination enables a firm to increase output and offer lower prices to some customers, whereas a monopolist might not be willing to lower prices and increase output otherwise if it had to lower the price to all consumers. In order to be able to price discriminate among consumers, a firm must have some market power and not operate in a perfectly competitive market. More specifically, a firm must be the only producer of the particular good or service that it provides. (Note that, strictly speaking, this condition requires that a producer be a monopolist, but the product differentiation present under monopolistic competition could allow for some price discrimination as well.) If this were not the case, firms would have an incentive to compete by undercutting competitors’ prices to the high-priced consumer groups, and price discrimination would not be able to be sustained. If a producer wants to discriminate on price, it must also be the case that resale markets for the producer’s output do not exist. If consumers could resell the firm’s output, then consumers who are offered low prices under price discrimination could resell to consumers who are offered higher prices, and the benefits of price discrimination to the producer would vanish.

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